Adverbs of manner express how the action of a verb occurs. In English, the vast majority of adverbs of manner end in -ly, whereas in French, they mostly end in -ment. They are created from adjectives.
Adverbs of place express where the action of a verb occurs.
Adverbs of quantity express how much, how many, or to what extent.
Adverbs of time express when the action of a verb occurs.
Grammatical agreement is a vast topic - and one of the banes of French students. While in English we have a few pronouns and adjectives that indicate gender and number (e.g., he/him/his and she/her/hers), in French, agreement is found in 5 of the 8 parts of speech.
Vous can be every type of personal pronoun, but its role as a subject pronoun may be the trickiest because of agreement.
Most French verbs are conjugated with avoir as their auxiliary verb in compound tenses and moods, and therefore do not require agreement with their subjects. But avoir verbs do need agreement in a very specific construction: the past participle must agree with the direct object when it precedes the verb.
All pronominal verbs are être verbs in compound tenses and moods like the passé composé, which means that the past participles must agree with their subjects - at least in theory. In fact, it's not quite so straightforward.
The three French verb constructions which include some form of être plus a past participle usually require grammatical agreement of the past participle with the subject.
Verbs of perception are subject to grammatical agreement in the compound tenses, but the rules are somewhat tricky - they only agree with their subjects when they precede the verb.
You can explain what will happen in the near future with the construction aller + infinitive; for example, L'avion va atterrir ici - "The plane is going to land here."
Aller is one of the most common and useful French verbs and has irregular conjugations in most tenses and moods. Aller literally means "to go" and is required to create the near future.
In English, you can only answer yes / no questions with variations on the themes of yes, no, and I don't know. French, however, has another possibility: yes in response to no.
The prepositions après and derrière have somewhat similar meanings, which of course means that students sometimes get them confused. Learn the difference between après and derrière to put all of this confusion behind you.
The French verb arriver usually means "to arrive" or "to happen." It's a regular -er verb that requires être as its auxiliary verb in compound tenses/moods.