In both French and English, many adjectives can be used as nouns as a sort of shorthand to reference what you'd otherwise need an adjective + noun to refer to.
French compound nouns are made up of two or more words, often connected by hyphens. Making them plural can be a little tricky, but there are two rules that generally apply.
The French definite articles (le, la, l', les) indicate either a particular noun or, contrarily, the general sense of a noun. They're used similarly to their English counterpart "the," but there are many instances where a definite article is required in French but not English.
With articles, the de vs du, de la, des choice has to do with affirmative/negative and whether there's an adjective in front of the noun.
The aptly named indefinite article (un, une, des) indicates an unspecific or unidentified countable noun.
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Most French nouns and adjectives become plural with the addition of -s, but of course there are exceptions.
While most nouns, in both French and English, can be singular or plural, some can only be one or the other - and dozens of these don't "match up" in the two languages. The nouns on this page are plural in French but singular in English.
When dealing with plural possessions, French has only one possessive adjective for each grammatical person.
In French, each of the three grammatical possessors has two different possessive adjectives, depending on whether the possession is singular or plural. So there are a total of 6 French possessive adjectives for plural possessors.