Compléments d’objet direct (COD)
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A direct object is a noun, whether person or thing, that someone or something acts upon. In the simplest sentences, the direct object directly follows the verb, so it’s very easy to see the effect that the verb has on the noun.
|Elle connaît Grégoire.||She knows Grégoire.|
|Je vois le chiot.||I see the puppy.|
|Je lis un roman historique.||I’m reading a historical novel.|
Characteristics of direct objects
- Always used with transitive verbs
- Never preceded by prepositions
- Cannot be removed without altering the meaning of the sentence
- Become the subject when sentence is turned around into the passive voice
- Can always be found by asking "Whom?" or "What?"
|Whom does she know?||She knows Grégoire.|
|What do I see?||I see the puppy.|
|What am I reading?||I’m reading a historical novel.|
Direct object pronouns
In order to avoid repeating nouns in a series of sentences or when answering questions, both French and English replace direct objects with direct object pronouns.
|Elle voit Grégoire. Elle connaît Grégoire depuis 2 ans.||She sees Grégoire. She’s known Grégoire for 2 years.|
|Elle voit Grégoire. Elle le connaît depuis 2 ans.||She sees Grégoire. She’s known him for 2 years.|
As you can see, the second version sounds much more natural, in both languages.
French direct object pronouns
+ The first and second person singular pronouns have three forms each:
- Normal forms: me and te
- Contracted forms: m’ and t’, for use in front of a vowel or h muet
- Stressed forms: moi and toi, for use in a particular imperative construction
+ The third person singular pronouns have two forms:
- Normal forms: le and la
- Contracted form: l’, for use in front of a vowel or h muet
À noter :
- Le replaces any masculine noun, whether human or inanimate, while la replaces any feminine noun.
- Le is also a neuter object pronoun
+ The plural direct object pronouns have just one form each.
In French, direct object pronouns generally precede the verb, whereas in English they follow it – learn more.
|Je le connais.||I know him.|
|Nous la buvons.||We’re drinking it.|
|Tu m’aimes ?||Do you love me?|
|Elles vous voient.||They see you.|
Advanced word order
|Je l’ai dit.||I said it.|
|Nous t’avons vu.||We saw you.|
|Je dois le dire.||I have to say it.|
|Nous pouvons te voir.||We can see you.|
|Quiz: Direct objects|
- Indirect objects
- Direct vs indirect objects
- Neuter object pronoun
- Personal pronouns
- Stressed pronouns
- Placement of object pronouns
- Word order with double pronouns
- Agreement with the direct object
- Te vs vous