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In English, we say that the vowels are "a, e, i, o, u, and sometimes y." The last couple of words hint at one of the keys to understanding pronunciation: a vowel is not so much a letter as the sound represented by a letter or combination of letters.
Characteristics of a vowel sound
- Produced by vibrating the vocal cords
- Pronounced with no obstruction of the throat, tongue, or lips
- Can be a syllable on its own
The majority of French vowels are pronounced closer to the front of the mouth than their English counterparts. The tongue and lips remain tensed through the pronunciation of French vowels, and the sounds remain "pure," rather than diphthonging into y or w sounds, like English vowels tend to do.
There are three different ways to categorize French vowel sounds:
1. Sound production: oral vs nasal
- Oral vowels are pronounced by passing air through the mouth:
A E I O U
- Nasal vowels are pronounced by passing air through the mouth and nose:
AN IN ON UN
2. Tongue position: high vs low (aka closed vs open)
3. Effect on consonants: hard vs soft
- Hard vowels: A, O, U. When followed by any of these vowels (or by a consonant), the consonant has a hard pronunciation.
- Soft vowels: E, I, Y. When followed by any of these vowels, the consonant has a soft pronunciation.
This distinction is very important for certain verbs, which require spelling changes in order to maintain a soft pronunciation in front of a hard vowel – learn more.
All of the French oral vowels may be modified with various accents. These diacritical marks are extremely important and must be included when writing or typing in French.
- French vowels for beginners
- Closed vs open vowels
- Nasal vowels
- IPA symbols for vowels
- French accents
- French alphabet