Subjunctive

Subjonctif

The subjunctive is a special verb form, called a mood, that is used in dependent clauses to indicate some sort of subjectivity, uncertainty, or unreality in the mind of the speaker. In French, feelings like doubt and desire require the subjunctive, as do expressions of necessity, possibility, and judgment. Please scroll down to see the complete list of verbs, expressions, and conjunctions.

Note, however, that there are two additional conditions to meet before using the subjunctive:

1) Que or qui
The expression in the main clause must end with the relative pronoun que or qui. If it ends with the preposition de, you need to use the infinitive.

Il est important que tu fasses tes devoirs.   It’s important for you to do your homework.
Il est important de faire tes devoirs.   It’s important to do your homework.
Il est important de fasses tes devoirs.    

2) Two subjects
The subject of the main clause and that of the dependent clause must be different. If they’re the same, just use the infinitive.

Je veux que tu ailles à la banque.   I want you to go to the bank.
Je veux aller à la banque.   I want to go to the bank.
Je veux que j’aille à la banque.    

  À noter : There is no future subjunctive in French. Even for subjective situations that are clearly set in the future, the present subjunctive is used.

Il faut que tu prennes le bus demain. You’ll have to take the bus tomorrow.

There are hundreds of verbs, expressions, and conjunctions that call for the subjunctive, so it’s helpful to divide them into themes.

Preferences, Advice, Needs, Desires, Orders (PANDO)

aimer mieux que   to like better / to prefer that
commander que   to order that
défendre que   to forbid
demander que   to ask (someone to do something)
désirer que   to desire that
donner l’ordre que   to order that
empêcher que*   to prevent (someone from doing something)
éviter que*   to avoid
exiger que   to demand that
il est à souhaiter que   it is to be hoped that
il est capital que   it is crucial that
il est essentiel que   it is essential that
il est impératif que   it is imperative that
il est nécessaire que   it is necessary that
il est temps que   it is time that
il est urgent que   it is urgent that
il faut que   it is necessary that
interdire que   to forbid that
s’opposer que   to oppose that
ordonner que   to order that
permettre que   to permit that
préférer que   to prefer that
proposer que   to propose that
recommander que   to recommend
souhaiter que   to wish that
suggérer que   to suggest that
tenir à ce que   to insist that
vouloir que   to want that

*These verbs call for the ne explétif

Judgments, Emotions, Feelings (JEF)

accepter que   to accept
adorer que   to love that
aimer que   to like that
apprécier que   to appreciate that
avoir honte que   to be ashamed that
avoir peur que*   to be afraid that
craindre que*   to fear that
déplorer que   to deplore that
détester que   to hate that
être content que   to be happy that
être désolé que   to be sorry that
être étonné que   to be amazed that
être heureux que   to be happy that
être surpris que   to be surprised that
être triste que   to be sad that
il est bizarre que   it is odd that
il est bon que   it is good that
il est convenable que   it is proper/fitting that
il est dommage que   it is too bad that
il est étonnant que   it is amazing that
il est étrange que   it is strange that
il est faux que   it is false that
il est heureux que   it is fortunate that
il est honteux que   it is shameful that
il est important que   it is important that
il est inutile que   it is useless that
il est juste que   it is right/fair that
il est naturel que   it is natural that
il est normal que   it is normal that
il est rare que   it is rare that
il est regrettable que   it is regrettable that
il est surprenant que   it is surprising that
il est utile que   it is useful that
il n’est pas exact que   it is not correct that
il n’est pas vrai que   it is not true that
il vaut mieux que   it is better that
redouter que*   to dread that
regretter que   to regret that
se réjouir que   to be delighted that

*These verbs call for the ne explétif

Possibilities, Opinions, Doubts, Suppositions (PODS)

s’attendre à ce que   to expect
chercher … qui*   to look for
douter que**   to doubt that
il est douteux que**   it is doubtful that
il est impossible que   it is impossible that
il est improbable que   it is improbable that
il est possible que   it is possible that
il est peu probable que   it is improbable that
il n’est pas certain que   it is not certain that
il n’est pas clair que   it is not clear that
il n’est pas évident que   it is not obvious that
il n’est pas probable que   it is improbable that
il n’est pas sûr que   it is not certain that
il semble que   it seems that
il se peut que   it may be that
le fait que   the fact that
nier que***   to deny that
refuser que   to refuse
supposer que   to suppose, hypothesize

*Whether to use the subjunctive depends on whether you know this person exists – learn more.

**These do not take the subjunctive when they are used negatively.

***When nier is in the negative or interrogative, it calls for the ne explétif.

Conjunctions

Many conjunctions and conjunctive phrases require the subjunctive, notably those which link cause and effect:

à condition que   provided that
à moins que*   unless
à supposer que   assuming that
afin que   so that
avant que*   before
bien que   although
de crainte que*   for fear that
de façon que   so that, in order that, in such a way that
de manière que   so that
de peur que*   for fear that
de sorte que   so that
en admettant que   assuming that
en attendant que   while, until
encore que   even though
jusqu’à ce que   until
où que   wherever
pour que   so that
pourvu que   provided that
qui que   whoever
quoique   even though
quoi que   whatever, no matter what
sans que*   without

*These conjunctions call for the ne explétif

Conjunctions that express a simple reality do not call for the subjunctive:

ainsi que   just as, so as
alors que   while, whereas
après que*   after, when
aussitôt que*   as soon as
car   since, because
en même temps que   at the same time that
depuis que   since
dès que*   as soon as, immediately
lorsque*   when
parce que   because
pendant que   while
plutôt que   instead of, rather than
puisque   since, as
quand*   when
tandis que   while, whereas
une fois que*   once

*These conjunctions are followed by the future tense or the future perfect in French, even though in English we use the present tense.

   
Quiz: Subjunctive

Additional subjunctive triggers

  More French subjunctive

Subjunctive tenses

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French subjunctive


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