In French, E is the only letter that can be modified with l'accent aigu, the acute accent. With the accent, it may be called either e accent aigu or simply é, pronounced [e]. As indicated by the latter, the acute accent changes the vowel's pronunciation to [e].
The circumflex, aka "little hat," is the only French accent that may be found on each of the five vowels. In any given word, the circumflex may serve one or more purposes.
French is a Romance language, but it has a number of characteristics that set it apart from the other members of its linguistic family. Here is an extremely simplified synopsis of its development.
The International Phonetic Alphabet, or IPA, is a set of characters used to standardize pronunciation explanations across languages. It uses a unique symbol for each sound, which makes discussions of different languages much easier.
If you're just starting to learn French, you might find it interesting to learn some basics about French linguistics and grammar.