French preposition par
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French preposition

The preposition par generally means "by," "through," or "per."

1) Location / Direction

  par ici ou par lĂ  ?   this way or that way? (lit: by here or by there?)
  sortir par la fenĂȘtre   to leave through the window

2) Amount per unit of measurement

  gagner 15 euros par heure   to earn 15 euros an / per hour
  coĂ»ter 3 euros par kilo   to cost 3 euros a / per kilo

3) Manner or means

      dĂ©couvrir par hasard   to discover by accident
  rĂ©ussir par le travail   to succeed through (hard) work

4) Reason

  par habitude   through / out of habit
  faire par pitiĂ©   to do out of pity

5) Passive voice

  la fenĂȘtre a Ă©tĂ© cassĂ©e par l’orage   the window was broken by the storm
  un film rĂ©alisĂ© par Luc Besson   a movie directed by Luc Besson

6) After verbs

  Some verbs must be followed by par in front of a noun or infinitive.

7) Expressions with par

 Par + noun is often equivalent to an English adverb ending in -ly: par consĂ©quent = consequently.

 Par is usually followed directly by a noun, with no article in between. Learn more: Prepositions with nouns

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French preposition par

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