Le Petit Prince

Le Petit Prince
Read the first chapter of Antoine de Saint-Exupéry's delightful children's book, Le Petit Prince.

   

Le Rouge et le Noir

Le Rouge et le Noir
Read the first few paragraphs of Stendhal's classic 19th-century novel Le Rouge et le Noir, in French and English.

   

   

   

Les Misérables

Les Misérables
Read the first chapter of Victor Hugo's classic French novel Les Misérables, in French and English.

   

   

Literary Tenses and Moods

French literary tensesFrench has five past tenses/moods that are restricted to formal, written French. They were once common in spoken French, offering nuances that no longer exist today.

   

Madame Bovary

Madame Bovary
Read the first few paragraphs of Gustave Flaubert's classic novel Madame Bovary, in French and English.

   

Ne littéraire

Ne littéraire - Formal French NegationIn formal, usually written French, there are certain verbs and constructions that can be made negative with just ne - the inclusion of pas or some other negative word is not required.