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In This Issue

• En souffrance

• Direct Objects ~ COD

• Advent Calendar

• Aphereses

• Candide (Excerpt)

En souffrance

Don't wait to read this lesson on the French expression en souffrance.

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French direct objects

A direct object is a noun, whether person or thing, that someone or something acts upon or does something to. In both French and English, direct objects are often replaced with direct object pronouns (COD): me, te, le, la, nous, vous, les.

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Translate a French word to open each door in this French Advent calendar.

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French aphereses

A few dozen French words have a shortened form called an apheresis or aphaeresis, which is created by dropping one or more syllables at the beginning of the word. Some of these are further modified by adding an extra sound to the end.

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Test your reading comprehension with the first chapter of Voltaire's classic French novel Candide, in French and English.

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